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Stephen Brown: Book Reviews

ANNOTATED MUSIC THEORY BIBLIOGRAPHY

Stephen Brown,  October 13, 2012, Version 5.14

The Annotated Music Theory Bibliography is divided into the following chapters:

1.   Rudiments
2.   Musicianship, Sight Reading, and Ear Training
3.   Harmony
4.   Counterpoint
5.   Keyboard Harmony
6.   Analysis
7.   History: General Reference, Middle Ages, Renaissance, Baroque,       Classical, Romantic, and Post 1900
8.   Post 1900 Composition
9.   Instrumentation, Orchestration, and Notation
10. Electronic and Computer Music
11. Conducting
12. Score Anthologies
13. Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
14. Online Resources

1. Rudiments

Braaten, Brenda and Crystal Witsyk. Sound Advice: Theory and Ear Training, Levels 1-8. Mississauga, Ontario: Frederick Harris Music, 2006.
- An excellent series of books that can accompany the instrument/voice grades from 1-8. Each book contains 24 lessons in both theory and ear training. The ear training exercises are also available online. Clear, enjoyable, and easy to use. These textbooks are also listed in Musicianship, Sight Reading, and Ear Training.

Sarnecki, Mark. The Complete Elementary Music Rudiments. Mississauga, Ontario: Frederick Harris Music, 2001.
- A fine textbook that is comprehensive and easy to understand. Used by many teachers.

Sarnecki, Mark. Elementary Music Rudiments. 3 vols. Mississauga, Ontario: Frederick Harris Music, 2001.
- Same as above but divided into three volumes.

Taylor, Eric. The AB Guide to Music Theory, Part I. London: Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music, 1989.
- A British approach to rudiments. Thoughtful and musical in every way except that he still subscribes to the batty idea that there is such a thing as a diminished unison. A very good read even for the experienced musicians. And, thank goodness, the tenuto mark is finally explained in the way it is used by musicians. Part 2 covers harmony and orchestration.

Taylor, Eric. Music Theory in Practice. 5 vols. London: Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music, 1990.
- The workbooks that accompany the above textbook, but with added information. Uses music examples drawn from well known composers.

Vandendool, Grace. Keyboard Theory. 3 vols. Mississauga, Ontario: Frederick Harris Music, 2001.
- A practical step by step approach to rudiments. Volumes 1 and 2 are very good for younger students. Volume 3, Advanced Rudiments, is not as focused and has quite a few odd chapters.

Wharram, Barbara. Wood, Kathleen, ed. Elementary Rudiments of Music. Mississauga, Ontario: Frederick Harris Music, 2005.
- A revised edition of a highly used and respected Canadian textbook. The quirks have been removed, many exercises have been added, and the text has been updated. Now an excellent, all in one textbook that works very well for teenagers and adult students.

Younger, John B. Wood, Kathleen, ed. Elementary Rudiments Answer Book. Mississauga, Ontario: Frederick Harris Music, 2005. (Accompanies Wharram, Elementary Rudiments of Music.)
- As the title states, an answer book for the above textbook.

2. Musicianship, Sight Reading, and Ear Training

Bach, Johann Sebastian. Sulyok Imre, ed. Four-Part Chorales. Budapest, Hungary; Editio Musica Budapest, 1982.
- The finest edition of Bach's Chorales available. The text for each chorale is included along with historical data, such as, who wrote the melody and in which work the chorale is used. Decants are also included. Organized, Soli Deo Gloria, in alphabetical order. Also listed in Harmony and Score Anthologies.

Berkowitz, Sol, Gabriel Fontrier, and Leo Kraft. A New Approach to Sight Singing. 4th ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 1997.
- A coordinated body of carefully graded melodies, duets, and short pieces for voice and piano. As the publisher states, "A time tested classroom performer!"

Berlin, Boris, and Andrew Markow. Ear Training for Practical Examinations: Melody Playback/Singback. 4 vols. Mississauga, Ontario: Frederick Harris Music, 1988.
- A preparation book for the ear tests on the RCME practical examinations. Grades 1-11. Quite useful.

Berlin, Boris, and Andrew Markow. Ear Training for Practical Examinations: Rhythm Clapback/Singback. 3 vols. Mississauga, Ontario: Frederick Harris Music, 1988.
- A preparation book for the ear tests on Grades 1-7 of the RCME practical examinations. Quite useful.

Braaten, Brenda and Crystal Witsyk. Sound Advice: Theory and Ear Training, Levels 1-8. Mississauga, Ontario: Frederick Harris Music, 2006.
- An excellent series of books that can accompany the instrument/voice grades from 1-8. Each book contains 24 lessons in both theory and ear training. The ear training exercises are also available online. Clear, enjoyable, and easy to use. These textbooks are also listed in Rudiments.

Brown, Stephen. Victoria Conservatory of Music Musicianship Syllabus. Victoria: 2012.
- 11 grades. Divides each grade into seven components. Grades 1 - 8: Rhythm, Intervals, Chords and Chord Progressions, Melody, Composition, Scale Identification, and Noticing Differences. Grades 9 - 11 introduces Realizing a Figured Bass, Transposition, and Sight Singing an Upper, Lower, or Middle Part. Download the syllabus free:
http://vcm.bc.ca/distance/distanceeducation.html

Cole, Samuel Winkley, and Leo R. Lewis. Melodia: A Comprehensive Course in Sight Singing. Boston: Ditson, 1909.
- A tonal approach (obviously, this book has been in use for more than a century), and a good one.

Committee of the General Synod. The Book of Common Praise: The Hymn Book of the Anglican Church of Canada. London: Oxford University Press, 1908, revised 1938.
- Every musician should have at least one hymn book. It can function as a sight reading text and as a harmony source. It should not be too modern, too out of date, or come from a church with a dubious musical history. The 1938 revision of the Book of Common Praise, highly recommended, offers a fine selection of hymns from Orlando Gibbons to Healey Willan, all very well laid out with much source information. Also listed in Harmony and Score Anthologies.

Crowe, E., and A. Lawton. Folk Song Sight Singing. 10 books. London: Oxford University Press, 2007.
- 10 lovely little books using folk songs from throughout the world. They begin with the simplest passages and progress to more difficult leaps, rhythms, chromatics, and modulations. The later books introduce two-part sight singing.

Edlund, Lars. Modus Vetus. Stockholm: Nordisca, 1963; Beekman Books Inc., 1994.
- The tonal run up to Modus Novus, see below.

Edlund, Lars. Modus Novus. Stockholm: Nordisca, 1963; Beekman Books Inc., 1990.
- If you want to improve your ability to hear the harmonies and melodies of atonal, non-tonal, 12-tone, and other freely dissonant musics, this book is it. Difficult it is, and not for beginners. Most people will want to have a thorough understanding, and a fair mastery of tonal sight singing before approaching this material.

Hindemith, Paul. Elementary Training for Musicians. 2nd ed. London: Schott, 2002.
- I love this book. Written by a man who could play every instrument of the orchestra, who could compose a satisfying piece for almost every kind of ensemble, and who was one of the most stimulating teachers of his day. It is a collection of exercises intended to develop basic musicianship skills, including note-reading, and rhythmic and melodic sight-singing and dictation. One starts off in Chapter 1 thinking, "This is easy. No problem, this book will be fun." By the time Chapter 3 comes along one is thinking they are in the wrong profession and perhaps a career change is in order.

Karpinsky, Gary. Manual for Sight Singing and Ear Training. New York: W.W. Norton, 2006.
- A college level book. Also available is a set of recordings and an instructor's CD-ROM. And one can purchase a companion Anthology for Sight Singing with 1,200 graded excerpts.

Koldáy, Zoltán. 333 Exercises. Rev. English ed. London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1972.
- To some, Koldáy is the god of ear training and singing for the masses. This book and the ones below are quite musical.

Koldáy, Zoltán. Let Us Sing Correctly. London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1964.

Koldáy, Zoltán. 15, 55, 66, and 77 Two-Part Exercises. London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1952 - 1972.

Kraft, Leo. A New Approach to Ear Training. 2nd ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 1999.
- Focusing on melodic and harmonic diction. One needs to purchase the four audio CDs, which are extra, to make full use of this book.

Ottman, Robert O. Music for Sight Singing. 8th ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2010.
- Typically, music students resist their music theory courses and enjoy the sight singing exercises associated with them even less. This is compilation of singable melodies from the folk and art music repertoires makes this task considerably easier.

Starer, Robert. Basic Rhythmic Training. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: MCA, 1986.
- For the beginner. This book is a run up to the book below. It is worth a look but it is not as well laid out as others.

Starer, Robert. Rhythmic Training. Melville, New York: MCA, 1969.
- A standard textbook on this subject. Used by many music schools. Progressive and well laid out.

3. Harmony

Aldwell, Edward, and Carl Schachter. Harmony and Voice Leading. 3rd ed. Schimer Books, 2002.
- Used in many universities, a linear approach that covers harmony from Bach to Brahms. Some will find its Schenkerian approach and techno babble not to their taste. However, it makes a good second choice. Workbook available.

Aston, Peter, and Julian Webb. Music Theory in Practice. Vols. 6-8. London: Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music, 1992-1993.
- The workbooks that accompany the AB Guide to Music Theory, Part 2 textbook, by Eric Taylor, but with added information. Uses music examples drawn from well known composers. Each workbook has excellent sections on figured bass, trio sonatas, and Post 1900 melody writing.

Bach, Johann Sebastian. Sulyok Imre, ed. Four-Part Chorales. Budapest, Hungary; Editio Musica Budapest, 1982.
- The finest edition of Bach's Chorales available. The text for each chorale is included along with historical data, such as, who wrote the melody and in which work the chorale is used. Decants are also included. Organized, Soli Deo Gloria, in alphabetical order. Also listed in Musicianship, Sight Reading, and Ear Training, and Score Anthologies.

Braaten, Brenda and Crystal Witsyk. Sound Advice: Theory and Ear Training, Book 8. Mississauga, Ontario: Frederick Harris Music, 2006.
- An excellent introductory harmony book that continues the fine set of rudiments books, volumes 1-7. by Braaten and Witsyk. Comes with online ear-training. Works well if you have completed the Sound Advice: Theory and Ear Training textbooks.

Butterworth, Anna. Harmony in Practice. London: Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music, 1999.
- A first-rate British textbook, straightforward and well written with many musical examples by well known composers. Covers all levels of harmony. Of interest is the British nomenclature for note values, chord inversions, and no-chord notes. Calling a 64th note a hemidemisemiquaver always brings a smile.

Committee of the General Synod. The Book of Common Praise: The Hymn Book of the Anglican Church of Canada. London: Oxford University Press, 1908, revised 1938.
- Every musician should have at least one hymn book. It can function as a sight reading text and as a harmony source. It should not be too modern, too out of date, or come from a church with a dubious musical history. The 1938 revision of the Book of Common Praise, highly recommended, offers a fine selection of hymns from Orlando Gibbons to Healey Willan, all very well laid out with much source information. Also listed in Musicianship, Sight Reading, and Ear Training, and Score Anthologies.

Gauldin, Robert. Harmonic Practice in Tonal Music. 2nd ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2004.
- A widely used textbook by a respected theoretician and professor emeritus at Eastman School of Music. Workbook available.

Hindemith, Traditional Harmony
- Compact (125 pages) and not as complete as modern theory textbooks, this little volume still has much to say on the subject. Written by the prominent German composer.

Kostka, Stefan, and Dorothy Payne: Tonal Harmony: With an Introduction to Twentieth-Century Music. 6th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2009.
- An excellent, easy to perceive, all in one, harmony textbook used in many post secondary institutions. The Introduction to the 20th Century is an added bonus that covers the RCME Post 1900 Analysis requirements. Workbook available.

Ottman, Robert W. Advanced Harmony: Theory and Practice. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2000.
Ottman, Robert W. Elementary Harmony: Theory and Practice. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1998. (With CD.)
- These are companion volumes that cover the music from Bach to Brahms and also include an introduction to the 20th century. Workbooks are available.

Piston, Walter. Harmony. 5th ed. Revised and expanded by Mark DeVoto. New York: W.W. Norton, 1987.
- Illustrious American composer Walter Piston wrote the first three editions of this textbook. The third edition is particularly fine if somewhat dated. After Piston's death in 1976, the torch was passed to Mark DeVoto for the fourth and fifth editions. One of the standard American textbooks, highly used.

Sarnecki, Mark. Harmony. 3 vols. Mississauga, Ontario: Frederick Harris Music, 2002.
- Thoughtful, progressive, and well laid out, used by many teachers in preparation for the RCME examinations. A fine set of books.

Taylor, Eric. The AB Guide to Music Theory. Part 2. London: Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music, 1991.
- The textbook for the workbooks by Aston, Peter, and Julian Webb. Music Theory in Practice. Vols. 6-8. Covers traditional harmony, with a tad of Post 1900 techniques, and orchestration. A very good read even for the experienced musicians. See above under Aston.

4. Counterpoint

Benjamin, Thomas. Counterpoint in the Style of J.S. Bach. New York: Schirmer, 1986.
- An outstanding textbook which concentrates on the music of J. S. Bach. It begins with melody writing and progresses to four-voice writing and fugal technique. Also covers variation form and cantus firmus procedure. Has an extensive anthology of Bach's music for analysis.

Fux, Johann Joseph. The Study of Counterpoint: from Joseph Fux's Gradus Ad Parnassum. New York: W.W. Norton, 1965.
- Not the last word on tonal counterpoint but one of the first. Johann Joseph Fux, Austrian composer and theorist, 1660-1741, was the Kapellmeister to the Austrian court and served three successive emperors. Bach held this book in high esteem and it served as a textbook for Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. Originally written in Latin in 1725, when many folks knew such things, it was translated into the principal European languages. The English version, however, was a free paraphrase published in 1886. The present fine translation by Alfred Mann in 1965 is a faithful reading of the original text. Or course it is highly valuable for its historical significance, but there is a spiritual connection in working the same exercises as did the masters. And you better learn or know your C clefts; one did in those days.

Gauldin, Robert. A Practical Approach to 18th Century Counterpoint. Long Grove, Illinois: Waveland Press, 1995.
- A companion volume to Gauldin's A Practical Approach to 16th Century Counterpoint.

Jeppesen, Knud. The Style of Palestrina and the Dissonance. New York: Dover, 1970.
- A highly insightful discussion of Palestina's style. Works well with Soderlund's Direct Approach to Counterpoint in Sixteenth Century Style.

Kennan, Kent W. Counterpoint: Based on 18th Century Practice. 4th ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1999.
- A superior textbook. The first half covers melody and two-voice writing. The second half concentrates on three voice writing and fugal techniques. Works very well for the RCME Counterpoint Examination and the Baroque sections of the Advanced Harmony and Analysis Examinations.

Piston, Walter. Counterpoint. New York: W.W. Norton, 1947.
- An engaging read. Piston's Counterpoint makes a splendid second textbook in this field.

Scott, Samuel, and Gustave Frederic Soderlund. Examples of Gregorian Chant & Other Sacred Music of the Sixteenth Century. Long Grove, Illinois: Waveland Press, 1971.
- Musical examples beginning with chant and progressing from two-voice compositions to the five and six-voice works of Palestrina. An excellent selection of scores. Also listed in Score Anthologies.

Schubert, Peter. Modal Counterpoint, Renaissance Style. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
- An exceptional textbook at the undergraduate or graduate level. Highly musical and laid out in an understandable, progressive, student friendly manner.

Schubert, Peter, and Christoph Neidhofer. Baroque Counterpoint. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson - Prentice Hall, 2006.
- Schubert, with company, moves on a 150 years and tackles the Baroque. Another exceptional book. Includes extensive quotations from a variety of composers and is somewhat unique in its plunge straight in, deep end approach.

Soderlund, Gustave Frederic. Direct Approach to Counterpoint in Sixteenth Century Style. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1947.
- This is a practical and progressive text. It is supported by a companion volume of musical examples by Scott and Soderland (listed above). Depending on what edition you have of each book, some renumbering of the cross reference between the textbook and the musical examples text may be necessary. Works well with Jeppesen's The Style of Palestrina and the Dissonance

5. Keyboard Harmony

Andrews, William, and Molly Sclater. Materials of Western Music. Parts 1, 2, and 3. Toronto: Gordon V. Thompson Music (Warner Bros. Publications), 1987-92.
- An examination of the music from Bach to Brahms with many scores for analysis. In Common Practice Period SATB writing, the only 'rule' is to avoid parallel 5ths and 8ths. Other voice leading instructions are observations of common occurrences which all have exceptions. The SATB sections the Andrews and Sclater books contain many 'rules' that some would find useful and other would find pedantic.

Arnold, F. T. The Art of Accompaniment from a Figured-Bass. 2 vols. Mineloa, New York: Dover Publications, 1965.
- This legendary work presents a comprehensive survey of the topic, covering every aspect of significance to today's performers.

Bach, J.S. 69 Chorales and Figured Bass. [editions published by Kalmus, Schirmer, Editio Musica Budapest, Belwin Mills]
- For the most part, Bach did not write the melodies to his chorales. He did write these melodies however, and figured them. Characteristically they are more chromatic and angular than the chorales. It brings much pleasure to add the inner parts to the master's musings.

Brings, Allen, et al. A New Approach to Keyboard Harmony. New York: W.W. Norton, 1979.
- A practical collection designed to accommodate the needs of students with differing levels of keyboard ability. Has a substantial body of graded keyboard exercises and a short keyboard anthology.

Frackenpohl, Arthur. Harmonization at the Piano. 6th ed. Dubuque, Iowa: W.C. Brown, 1991.
- Contains a thorough study of harmony and styles of piano playing through the use of music literature in the Common Practice Period, as well as folk and popular songs.

Melcher, Robert. Music for Keyboard Harmony. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1966.
- This is one of a series of texts by Melcher and Warch. Also available are Music for Score Reading (listed below), Music for Study, and Music for Advanced Study (both score anthologies catalogue the score excerpts by type of chord: secondary dominants, Neapolitan sixth, German Augmented sixth, etc.). These books are out of print but should be obtainable from any fine library. Music for Keyboard Harmony is clear, graduated, and easy to follow. It teaches different accompaniment styles with excellent examples. Also contains suggestions for less skillful pianists (non piano majors). Contains a nice "play by ear" section. Music for Study, and Music for Advanced Study, are also listed in Score Anthologies.

Melcher, Robert, and William F. Warch. Music for Score Reading. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1971.
- Music for Score Reading is not a keyboard harmony textbook, but a textbook for playing orchestral music on a keyboard. A step by step approach to reading all the clefs and orchestral transpositions on the piano.

Morris, R.O. Figured Harmony at the Keyboard. 2 vols. London: Oxford University Press, 1932-33.
- Somewhat uneven in its presentation (it would work better if melodies were added above the keyboard part and not included in it, and the figures put below the bass line instead of in the middle of the keyboard clefs), but quite useful overall for figured bass realization.

Morris, R.O. And Howard Ferguson. Preparatory Exercises in Score Reading. London: Oxford University Press, 1931.
- An introductory score reading textbook that uses a mixture of treble, alto, tenor, and bass clefs. Concentrates on diatonic harmony and counterpoint.

6. Analysis

Benward, Bruce, and Marilyn Saker. Music in Theory and Practice, 2 Vols. 8th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2009.
- Highly regarded and used set of harmony textbooks. Each book comes with a CD. Volume 2 stresses analysis. Workbooks available.

Burkhart, Charles. Anthology for Musical Analysis. 6th ed. Shirmer Books, 2003
- Used by many universities. The musical examples are well chosen and the comments stimulating. Please note, it does not have accompanying CDs. Also listed in Score Anthologies.

Cook, Nicholas. Analysis through Composition: Principles of the Classical Style. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
- Approaches Classical Period composition through an analysis of the works.

Cadwallader & Gagne, Analysis of Tonal Music: A Schenkerian Approach. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1998.
- As it says in the title, a Schenkerian based approach to analysis of music from the Period of Common Practice. A third or fourth year undergraduate or a graduate text.

Cambridge Music Handbooks. Various authors. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, various publishing dates.
- There are 91 titles in this series of books ranging from Monteverdi's Vespers to Berg's Violin Concerto. They discuss the work's composition and performance history, and analyze the the music. They are excellent compact paperbacks packed with valuable information.

Czaczhas, Ludwig. Die Fugen des wohltemperierten Klaviers in bildlicher Darstellung (Gr) - The Fugues of the Well Tempered Clavier in Graph Notation, Paul Swartz translator, Vienna, Austria: Osterreichischer Bundesverlag, 1984.
- A companion text to the two volume Analyse des Wohltemperierten Klaviers: Form und Aufbau der Fuge bei Bach (German Edition), which you do not need, to understand this wonderful book. At last, someone who analyses the fugues the way Bach must have composed them; by developmental sections defined by cadences rather than by the traditional three section approach - Exposition, Development (Modulatory Section), Final Section (Recapitulatory Section) - which does not recognize the continuous and natural development taking place and often turns out to be the proverbial square peg in a round hole. Many times it places the beginning of the Development in the middle of a phrase. For instance in analyzing Fugue 16 in G minor, Book I, both Iliffe and Morgan state that the Middle Section begins at measure 8 with the first Episode which leads to an entry at measure 12. This makes no sense. The music is in full flight and does not rest until the perfect (authentic) cadence in B flat major at measure 12 where Czaczhas places it. Continuing the analysis in this manner, he defines three other sections in this fugue at measures 20, 28, and 34 for a total of four. Interestingly the 48 fugues have anywhere from two (C minor, Book I) to six (D sharp minor, Book I) sections, all defined according to phrases and cadences.. It is a sensible, logical approach that allows one to view the structure of the fugues easily. A fascinating book - highly recommended.

Iliffe, Francis. Bach's 48 Preludes and Fugues Analyzed. 2 vols. London: Novello, [n.d.].
- Helpful analysis of the 48. Has some quirks, such as not acknowledging a double or triple fugue, but overall worth owning, if only for the bar and beat number of the theme entries.

Lester, Joel. Bach's Works for Solo Violin: Style, Structure, Performance. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
- There is an inexplicable sense wonder in music for a solo instrument; not the piano of course, which can play many lines at once, but the violin, viola, cello, flute, and others. How does a composer carry the interest of the listener and the performer for an extended period of time in a one dimensional world without the use of harmony and counterpoint? They are there, but they are linear; horizontal not vertical. Shouldn't the listener tire of the music? If fact, exactly the opposite happens. From the blurb, "Bach's Works for Solo Violin will help violinists, students, scholars, and other listeners develop a deeper personal involvement with these wonderful pieces." And the Strad says, "The volume thus has a quadruple purpose, providing an analytical study and historical guide to Bach's solo violin works, an introduction to Bach's style and its evolution and a forum for authoritative discussion of selected performance issues...will certainly assist violinists, students, scholars and other listeners to develop new perspectives on this music...and encourage the cultivation of more informed and more vivid performances."

Lovelock, William. Form in Brief. Deacon House: Hammond, 1954.
- A concise and clear look at form. Quite informative.

MacPherson, Stewart. Form in Music. London: Stainer and Bell, 1978.
- An extended discussion of form. Somewhat out of date, however there is lots to admire.

Morgan, Orlando. J. S. Bach: 48 Preludes and Fugues: Analysis of the Fugues. (Unknown Binding) 1931.
- Highly insightful analysis of the 48. Most likely out of print, but well worth pursuing.

Rosen, Charles. Sonata Forms. 2nd ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 1988.
- An in depth look at the Classical Sonata by a virtuoso American pianist and musicologist. Reading The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven first, also by Rosen, can be helpful.

Salzer, Felix. Structural Hearing: Tonal Coherence in Music. 2 vols. New York: Dover, 1962.
- One of the most important books using the Schenkerian method of analysis. Extends the method to include Renaissance and Post 1900 Music.

Schoenberg, Arnold. Fundamentals of Musical Composition. Ed. G. Strang and L. Stein. London: Faber, 1999.
- A fundamental book by the supreme music theorist and composer Schoenberg,

Stainkamph, Eileen. Form and Analysis of the Complete Beethoven's Pianoforte Sonatas. Melbourne: Allans Music, 1968
- Lists all the major sections in each of the sonatas. Quite helpful once one gets used to the unusual way the author numbers the measures. Similar books were written for the Haydn and Mozart sonatas. May be out of print, but worth pursuing.

Tovey, Donald Francis, A Companion to the Beethoven Pianoforte Sonatas. London: Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music, 1999.
- There is lots to admire in Tovey's analysis even if some of it seems to go on and on and on. Highly detailed, stimulating, a must for pianists.

7. History: General Reference, Middle Ages, Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and Post 1900

GENERAL REFERENCE

Bonds, Mark Evans. A History of Music in Western Culture. 2nd ed. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2005
- The new kid on the block at the post secondary level. Concentrates on the music - you'll need another book for the bios. Very well written with many fine illustrations. Accompanying scores and CDs available.

Grout, Donald Jay, and Claude V. Palisca. A History of Western Music. 7th ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2006.
- The standard university textbook. Some might say it is dry, but when it comes to facts, it's got them. Accompanying scores and CDs available.

Fisk, Josiah, and Jeff Nichols eds. Composers On Music: Eight Centuries of Writings. 2 ed. A thorough revision of Sam Morgenstern's 1956 classic. Lebannon, New Hampshire: Northeastern University Press, 1997.
- One aspect of study that always bothers music students (they feel they will be inferior musicians because of it) is that they cannot hear the musical exercises they are writing without using an instrument. In this book we are treated to this gem by Stravinsky, "I should like to quote a remark of Rimski-Korsakov's that he made when I became his pupil, I asked him whether I was right always composing at the piano. 'Some compose at the piano,' he replied, 'and some compose without a piano. As for you, you will compose at the piano.' As a matter of fact, I do compose at the piano and I do not regret it. I go further; I think it is a thousand times better to compose in direct contact with the physical medium of sound then to work in the abstract medium provided by one's imagination." This book has hundreds of such illuminations from all the major composers. Another little book that goes well with this tome is Musical Quotes and Anecdotes by Robert Giddings.

Hanning, Barbara Rusanno. Concise History of Western Music. 3rd ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2007.
- Based on the Grout textbook above. Emphasizes the core repertoire.

Kramer, Jonathan G. Listen to the Music, A Self-Guided Tour Through the Orchestral Repertoire. New York: Schirmer Books, 1988.
- Here is an interesting book. Approximately 300 essays on the standard orchestral repertoire taken from the program notes of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra. They are stylish and original and contain many historical facts that one would not easily find elsewhere. For example, when discussing Mozart's Concerto Number 10 in E flat major for Two Pianos we are treated to this pearl, penned by Mozart, about his soloist partner, "If a painter wanted to portray the devil to the life, he would have to choose her face. She is as fat as a farm wench, perspires so that you feel inclined to vomit, and goes about so scantily clad that really you can read as plain as print: 'Pray, do look here.' True, there is enough to see, in fact, quite enough to strike one blind. But one is thoroughly punished for the rest of the day if one is unlucky enough to let one's eyes wander in that direction." Now why did the image of this 'charming' boy wonder, who was possibly beamed in from another planet, end up on so many boxes of chocolates?

Lang, Paul Henry. Music in Western Civilization. New York: W.W. Norton, 1941; reprint with new foreword by Leon Botstein, 1997.
- Lang's monumental history of music has stood for over a half century as the definitive work of its kind. Virgil Thomson states, "All in all, Music in Western Civilization is about the most fascinating general book on music I have ever read. I only wish there were more of it. 1100 pages is not a proper length for a book like that."

Lopinski, Janet, Joe Ringofer, and Peteris Zarins. Exploring Music History: A Guided Approach. 3 vols. Mississauga, Ontario: Frederick Harris Music, 2002.
- Very well laid out. Thoughtful and probing questions from three notable musicologists. Directly related to the RCME History examinations. Ideal to get students beavering away at their music history studies.

Machlis, Joseph, and Kristine Forney. The Enjoyment of Music. 10th ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2007.
- Used by universities in music appreciation courses. Includes much of the music in the RCME syllabus. It stresses women in music more than any other textbook and can be maddening for its lack of specifics.

March, Ivan, Edward Greenfield, Robert Layton, and Paul Czajkowski. The Penguin Guide to Recorded Classical Music 2010: The Key Classical Recordings on CD, DVD and SACD. London: Penguin Books, 2010.
- Not all the facts on the history of music is found between the covers of music history textbooks. CD accompanying booklets and, in particular LP record covers, where they had room to write, contain much valuable information. The Penguin Guide, first published in 1960 with a new edition released every two years, contains a plethora of latest lowdown on the cream of the crop CDs and DVDs. "Indispensible, illuminating, and comprehensive." The Times (London).

Miller, Hugh. History of Western Music. 3rd ed. Barnes and Noble, 1960.
- Almost every line in this textbook is worth a mark. The Coles Notes of music history. It contains excellent sections on the styles of the composers and the music periods. There are later publications, a 5th edition of History of Western Music by Dale Cockrell and Hugh Miller, published by HarperCollins, and an Introduction to Music, 3rd edition, by Hugh Miller, Paul Taylor, and Edgar Williams, also published by HarperCollins. These two books divide up the original book and throw in some rudiments and bits on musical structure. The original book is preferable.

Osborne, Charles, ed. The Dictionary of Composers. London: Papermac 1981.
- Contains compact and literate biographies of nearly 200 composers written by a team of 26 authoritative contributors. A very handy book to have.

Robertson, Alex, and Denis Stevens eds. 3 vols. Harmondsworth, England: Pelican Books, 1968.
- These three paperbacks: 1. Ancient Forms to Polyphony 2. Renaissance and Baroque 3. Classical and Romantic, are out of print but a very good read if you can find them.

Schonberg, Harold C. Lives of the Great Composers. 3rd ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 1997.
- A highly entertaining book, containing much biographical information, written by a former Chief Classical Music Editor of the New York Times. A good read.

Stolba, K. Marie. The Development of Western Music: A History. 3rd ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 1998.
- A comprehensive text that integrates historical periods, cultures, and artistic movements. CDs and a two volume anthology are available.

Suggs, Jack M, Katharine Doob Sakenfeld, James R. Mueller eds. The Oxford Study Bible: Revised English Bible with Apocrypha. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
- Every musician should own two copies of the bible; the King James version for its elegant prose (compare the opening lines of Psalms 23, "The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want." - King James version, to, "The Lord is my shepherd; I lack for nothing." - Oxford Study Bible.), and a contemporary version with the Apocrypha, so one can read the bible as one does a modern book. Think of all the music that is based on it. Can one possibly interpret correctly the great religious oratorios of Handel without placing them in their appropriate historical context? This annotated edition introduces readers to the Bible by providing a complete overview of the world of biblical history and scholarship, plus commentary on the text.

Taruskin, Richard. The Oxford History of Western Music, 6 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
- An outstanding achievement. Sweepingly ambitious and exceedingly well received. Authoritative and opinionated with very fine sections on Post 1900 music.


MIDDLE AGES

Gleason, Harold, and Warren Becker. Music in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. 3rd ed. Bloomington, Indiana: Frangipani Press, 1988.
- This text provides an outline of musical expression from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. Quite extensive; the first one quarter of the book, an interesting read, discusses the Ancient Music of Mesopotania, Egypt, Jewish Music, and Greece. This is followed by a significant section which divdes early polyphonic music, 1150-1450, by countries, French, Italian, and England. Music in the Renaissaince is very well written. This text is Volume 1 of 5 in the Music Literature Outline series. Other volumes in this series are Music in the Baroque, Early American Music, 20th Century American Composers, Chamber Music from Haydn to Bartok.

Hoppin, Richard H. Medieval Music. New York: W.W. Norton, 1978.
- A survey of medieval music from the earliest plainchant to polyphony in the beginning of the 15th century. One of the Norton Introduction to Music series texts. Anthology available.

Reese, Gustave. Music in the Middle Ages. Rev. ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2001.
- Reese, who died in 1977, was mainly know for his work on medieval and Renaissance music. This book, originally published in 1940, has remained a standard reference text.

Yudkin, Jeremy. Music in Medieval Europe. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1989.
- Historical survey of music in medieval Europe, from the end of Antiquity to the beginning of the fifteenth century. Comes with two cassette tapes. This book is part of the Prentice Hall Music Series.


RENAISSANCE

Atlas, Alan W. Renaissance Music: Music in Western Europe 1400–1600. New York: W.W. Norton, 1997.
- A comprehensive view of 15th and 16th century music in Europe. One of the Norton Introduction to Music series texts. Anthology available.

Brown, Howard Mayer. Music in the Renaissance. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1999.
- An overview of music in the 15th and 16th centuries with an emphasis on the contributions of the greatest composers.This book is part of the Prentice Hall Music Series.

Knighton, Tess, and David Fallows. Companion to Medieval and Renaissance Music. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.
- Can we appreciate the difference between a good and a bad piece of medieval polyphony? What was it like to be a composer in the Middle Ages? This book tackles these subjects and others like them. An interesting read.

Reese, Gustave. Music in the Renaissance. Rev. ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 1959.
- Reese, an American musicologist and teacher was mainly know for his work on medieval and Renaissance music. This book has remained a standard reference text since its publication.


BAROQUE

Burrows, Donald. Handel. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.
- A superb book by a foremost Handel scholar, performer, and conductor. Charts the interaction of Handel's life and music.

Burrows, Donald. Handel: Messiah. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
- A guide to Handel's Messiah. As well as tracing the history of the work, the book addresses musical and technical issues.

David, Hans, and Arthur Mendal ed. Revised and enlarged by Christoph Wolff. The New Bach Reader: A Life of Johann Sebastian Bach in Letters and Documents. New York: W.W. Norton, 1999.
- The master's life in documents. I like reading the "Specifications of the Estate Left by the Late Mr. Johann Sebastion Bach, Formerly Cantor at the St. Thomas School in Leipzig, Departed in God July 28, 1750." A share in a mine, various cash, silverware, pewter, copper, brass, clothing, home furnishing, theological books, and seven harpsichords (four had already been dispersed), three violins, four violas, two cellos, a viola da gamba, a lute, and other instruments, and not a mention of his scores. Hmmm. As Yo Yo Ma says, "Just reading these documents brings this great composer to life in a most exciting and vivid way. I love this book."

Hill, John Walter. Baroque Music: Music in Western Europe, 1580-1750. New York: W.W. Norton, 2005.
- A comprehensive history of music during the Baroque period. One of the Norton Introduction to Music series texts. Anthology available.

Palisca, Claude V. Baroque Music. 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1991.
- Palisca, better known as being the co-author of The History of Western Music with Grout, has written a survey of the principal genres and composers of the period. This book is part of the Prentice Hall Music Series.

Sadie, Julie Anne. Companion to Baroque Music. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.
- Anthony Burgess' description of this book says it all, "The plenitude of Baroque composers is bewildering. . . . This excellent book is your Baedeker."

Wolff, Christoph. Bach, The Learned Musician. New York: W.W. Norton, 2000.
- An outstanding book written by an outstanding Bach scholar. Comprehensive and engaging, the most important Bach biography since Spitta.


CLASSICAL

Cook, Nicholas. Analysis through Composition: Principles of the Classical Style. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
- An analysis, composition, and history book rolled into one. As the blurb says, "Unusual and stimulating."

Downs, Philip G. Classical Music: The Era of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. New York: W.W. Norton, 1992.
- A chronological approach from of the classical style from the birth of Haydn to the death of Beethoven. One of the Norton Introduction to Music series texts. Anthology available.

Heartz, Daniel. Haydn, Mozart, and the Viennese School, 1740–1780. New York: W.W. Norton, 1995.
- Written by a distinguished musicologist who researched this material for over 30 years, this book covers the years 1740 to 1780. Two other volumes in this series are available: Music in European Capitals: The Galant Style, and Mozart, Haydn and Early Beethoven: 1781-1802. Lavishly illustrated and highly detailed.

Landon, H. C. Robbins. Haydn, Chronicle and Works. 5 vols. London: Thames and Hudson, 1995.
- A year by year, composition by composition, assessment of Haydn's life and work. Highly detailed and very well written by one of the great raconteurs of music.

Pauly, Reinhard G. Music in the Classic Period. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2000.
- A comprehensive yet concise survey of the peroid. This book is part of the Prentice Hall Music Series.

Rosen, Charles. The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven. Expanded edition. New York: W.W. Norton, 1998.
- One of the best known works on the Classical period. Many works are analyzed in this outstanding book.

Solomon, Maynard. Beethoven. New York: Schirmer Trade Books, 2001.
Solomon, Maynard. Mozart, A Life.. New York: Harper Perennial, 2005.
- Highly regarded and insightful biographies of Mozart and Beethoven by one of the leading musicologists of our time. Solomon solves the riddle of Beethoven's immortal beloved.


ROMANTIC

Finson, Jon W. Nineteenth Century Music: The Western Classical Tradition. 1st ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2002.
- A succinct and accessible introduction to the basic literature of the period.

Garden, Edward. Tchaikovsky. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. (originally published 1973)
- A Master Musicians series book. Explores the personal history of each composer and the social context surrounding the music.

Millington, Barry. Wagner. Rev. ed. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1992.
- Wagner's life, influence, works, and the whole political, philosophical, and social argument around them. Received very good reviews.

Plantinga, Leon, ed. Romantic Music. New York: W.W. Norton, 1985.
- A survey of the development of romantic music by a foremost authority on the subject. One of the Norton Introduction to Music series texts. Anthology available.

Rosen, Charles. The Romantic Generation. (with CD) Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1995.
- Rosen tackles the Romantic period with the same verve he applied to The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven. A much admired book.

Samson, Jim. The Music of Chopin. London: Routyhlege and Kegan Paul, 1985; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.
- A detailed analysis of the style and structure of the music. The first serious study of Chopin's oeuvre to appear in English.


POST 1900

Antokoletz, Elliott. Twentieth-Century Music. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1992.
- A comprehensive look at 20th century musical idioms within their larger political, social, economic, and cultural contexts.

Brindle, Reginald Smith. The New Music: The Avant-Garde Since 1945. 2nd ed. London: Oxford University Press, 1987.
- Pointillism, post-Webernism, integral serialism, free dodecaphony, aleatory and indeterminate music, graphics, musique concrete, electronic music, it's all here. First published in 1975 and now somewhat dated, a worthwhile book.

Cope, David H. New Directions in Music. 7th ed. Prospect Heights, Illinois: Waveland Press, 2001.
- The history, philosophy, composers, and works of the avant-garde since the late 1940s. Now in its seventh edition. Comprehensive and up to date.

Gridley, Mark C. Jazz Styles: History and Analysis. 10th ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2009.
- Down Beat called it, "A work of immense value not only to educators and players, but also to non-musicians and jazz fans of all persuasions." CDs and a video available.

Kostka, Stefan. Materials and Techniques of Twentieth-Century Music. 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2006.
- Not a history text but an in depth view of Post 1900 techniques. Contains some historical content but best used as a compositional reference text for a 20th century history course. Also listed in Post 1900 Composition.

Morgan, Robert P. Twentieth Century Music. New York:
W.W. Norton, 1991.
- Overview of the 20th century (to 1991) beginning with Mahler, Strauss, and Debussy. One of the Norton Introduction to Music series texts. Anthology available.

Morris, Mark. A Guide to Twentieth Century Composers. London: Methuen, 1996.
- Organizes composers by country and ranks them. All the major, and many minor, composers are discussed. The introduction is very fine. Has an interesting section on Canada. An excellent book.

Salzman, Eric. Twentieth Century Music: An Introduction. 4th ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2002.
- A comprehensive exploration of modern music (to 1998) in a tightly condensed, simple format, that deals primarily with the music itself and musical ideas. This book is part of the Prentice Hall Music Series. Other volumes in this series that are not discussed in this bibliography are: Music Cultures of the Pacific, the Near East, and Asia, and Music in the United States: A Historical Introduction.

Wilson, Elizabeth. Shostakovich: A Life Remembered. 2nd ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006.
- It beats me why Shostakovich gets such short shrift in the standard history textbooks. One has to only look at the number of times his 15 symphonies and 15 string quartets are recorded and performed to realize that the attention given to his music in these texts is abysmal. In most editions of the Enjoyment of Music he receives one sentence: "The first Russian composer of international repute who was wholly a product of the Soviet musical culture." That's it. Doodle squat on his outstanding output and preeminent significance to our musical heritage. Yet, the 5th symphony is almost every major orchestra's party piece and the 8th string quartet is the equivalent to quartets. Reviews were glowing for the first edition of Shostakovich: A Life Remembered. Richard Taruskin - "Elizabeth Wilson's magnificent new oral history, [is] the one indispensable book about the composer." New York Daily News - "The most important book ever published about the greatest Russian composer of the twentieth century. . . . For the first time, Shostakovich's anguished personality comes into focus, and his emotionally devastating encounters with the Soviet government are put into trustworthy perspective." The second edition, produced to coincide with the centenary of Shostakovich's birth, draws on many new writings on the composer.

Whittall, Arnold. Music Since the First World War. London: Oxford University Press, 2000.
- A concise and accessible survey of the most significant modern composers and their techniques.

Wyman, Bill, with Richard Havens. Blues Odyssey. New York, New York: DK Publishing Inc., 2001.
- A coffee table book of sorts, but a good introduction to the blues with excellent graphics, photos, and illustrations. It begins with the slave trade, and works its way forward through ragtime, spirituals, and jazz before tackling the main subject of the book. The writing, and the fact there are too many pictures of Bill Wyman in the book, have been criticized, but overall it is a comprehensive and well documented. Two very fine companion volumes to this book would be Robert Palmer's "Deep Blues" or Alan Lomax's "The Land Where the Blues Began".

Volkov, Solomon. Testimony: The Memoirs of Dmitri Shostakovich. New York; Limelight 2004.
- First published in 1979 these "memoirs" were related to and edited by the author and translated from the Russian by Antonina W. Bouis. A best seller when it first came out, the book later came into dispute to the point where some have called it a fraud. Whatever, it is riveting. As one reviewer puts it, "Whether it is Dmitri Shostakovich's own story or a first-person novel by Volkov, this is a deeply engrossing, chillingly emotional and intensely tragic tale about the cost of fame in the Stalin years."

8. Post 1900 Composition

Aston, Peter, and Julian Webb. Music Theory in Practice. Vols. Grades 6–8. London: Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music, 1992.
- It is only the last sections in each of these books that covers 20th Century composition, and they address only Post 1900 melody writing. However, these are very fine and well worth reading.

Boulez, Pierre. Boulez on Music Today. Trans. S. Bradshaw and R.R. Bennett. Harvard University Press, 1971.
- A collection of writings on music from the articulate and controversial French composer, often highly subjective.

Brindle, Reginald Smith. Serial Composition. London: Oxford University Press, 1965.
- Covers all the most important aspects of serial composition. Written by a highly regarded British serialist.

Hindemith, Paul. Craft of Musical Composition. 2 vols. Mainz: Schott, 1942.
- Essential reading from the man who could compose for, and play, every instrument in the orchestra.

Kostka, Stefan. Materials and Techniques of Twentieth-Century Music. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2006.
- Excellent in its organization and material. A comprehensive text on Post 1900 music. Highly recommended. Also listed in History, Post 1900.

Lendvai, Erno. Béla Bartók, An Analysis of his Music. London: Kahn & Averill, 1971, new edition 2006.
- This is an interesting book. Lendvai's writings on Bartók have been pooh-poohed by many. However, his theories on how Bartók used the Golden Section, organized his tonal principals (the Axis System), and constructed his vertical sonorities (chords) are highly interesting.

Messiaen, Olivier. The Technique of My Musical Language. Tustin, California: American Biography [Reprint of 1954 ed.]
- In this book, originally published in two volumes, Messiaen discusses his compositional process (tweet, tweet, tweet) and provides musical examples that illustrate his ornithological approach.

Persichetti, Vincent. Twentieth-Century Harmony. New York: W.W. Norton, 1961.
- Persichetti, a respected American composer and educator at Juilliard (Philip Glass, Peter Schickele - PDQ Bach, and Thelonious Monk were amongst his students), died in 1987. This book covers composition in the first half of the 20th century. It is out of date, but there is much to admire in this highly musical book.

Wuorinen, Charles. Simple Composition. New York: Service. Reprint of 1956 ed. Peters, 1979.
- A respected American serial composer presents 12 tone compositional methods in a clearly written book.

9. Instrumentation, Orchestration, and Notation

Adler, Samuel. The Study of Orchestration. 3rd ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2001.
- A highly regarded textbook used in many post secondary institutions. Six CDs are available that cover the musical examples in the book. This is very helpful. Also available is a workbook.

Berlioz, Hector, and Richard Strauss. Treatise on Instrumentation. Mineloa, New York: Dover Publications, 1991.
- Berlioz wrote the first orchestration book in 1844 (how did Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and Schubert get by without it?). Richard Strauss revised and enlarged it in the early 1900's. As the blurb says, "a work in which no musician, composer, or music lover can afford to be without."

Blades, James. Percussion Instruments and their History. 4th revised edition. London: Hahn & Averill, 2006.
- Written by one of the world's foremost percussionists and first published in 1970 by Faber and Faber, this outstanding book in both a history book and a percussion technique book. The writing is infectious and highly knowledgeable. Has scads of illustrations and a forward by Benjamin Britten. If you are interested in percussion, it doesn't get any better than this.

Brindle, Reginald Smith. Contemporary Percussion. London: Oxford University Press, 1970.
- An excellent book covering percussion instruments and techniques both past and present. It contains a multitude of highly technical helpful information and uses the single line notation system for all the instruments except those that use a piano-keyboard layout.

Cole, Hugo. Sounds and Signs, Aspects of Musical Notation. London: Oxford University Press, 1974.
- This is a fun book. It examines the role played by notations in the whole complex of current activities which we lump together as "music" in the Western world. Thought provoking, lighthearted at times, intelligent and thoroughly enjoyable. Out of print, but used copies are available.

Del Mar, Norman. Anatomy of the Orchestra. London: Faber and Faber; Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1981.
- Not an orchestration book, but a book written for anyone interested in the performance of orchestral music by a renowned British conductor. Full of facts, tremendous fun, indispensable for orchestrators.

Forsyth, Cecil. Orchestration. Mineloa, New York: Dover Publications, 1982.
- A wonderfully, quite out of date (1914), book that one gets lost in. A delight. One goes to look up, say the range of the piccolo, and finds a discussion of its effect when doubling the clarinet two octaves higher in Bizet's Carmen. Not a first choice, but a definite must for any orchestrator. Exceedingly well written.

Gould, Elaine. Behind Bars: The Definitive Guide to Music Notation. London: Faber Music Ltd, 2011.

- Stunning, absolutely stunning. It continues the fine work of Kurt Stone (see below). However it is greatly enlarged and much more thorough - an indispensable companion to anyone who notates music whether pencil to paper or using Sibelius 7 (with its reference book, also highly recommended) - it doesn't matter, when in doubt, Behind Bars is the 'go to' book. It's all here, every aspect of notation is covered in 704 glorious pages supported by 1,500 music examples of published scores from Bach to Xenakis. "I pray that [this book] becomes a kind of Holy Writ for notation in this coming century. Certainly nobody could have done it better, and it will be a reference for musicians for decades to come," Simon Rattle.

Jacob, Gordon. Orchestral Technique, A Manual for Students. 3rd ed. London: Oxford University Press, 1981.
- I had the pleasure of conducting the world premiere of Jacob's Concerto for Double Bass, aka Little Concerto for Double Bass and Strings (composed 1972), with soloist Robert Meyer, for whom it was written for and dedicated to, with my orchestra in Sidney, British Columbia, on April 14, 2000. The concerto, written many years before in 1972, is a fine piece of music. It displays Jacob's tremendous skill as an orchestrator and his first rate idiomatic instrumental writing. That orchestral knowledge shines through in this short book - 104 pages, written in 1931 - which can serve as an introduction to the art of orchestration. And though it is brief, the book contains many especially pleasing concepts which any student of orchestration can use. Particularly charming is his description of the percussion section, "The best way of avoiding temptation (of using the rest of the kitchen, i.e., instruments of indefinite pitch) is to make a habit, unless writing for an abnormally large orchestra, of employing only two percussion players, one for the kettledrums exclusively, and the other for the rest of the percussion. This practice has the merit of cutting down expense as well as checking one's primitive barbaric instincts."

Kennan, Kent Wheeler. The Technique of Orchestration. 6th ed. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2002.
- A fine, well written textbook. It has interesting chapters that other books do not include, such as "˜Problems in Transcribing Piano Music" and "Scoring for High School Orchestra".

Piston, Walter. Orchestration. New York: W.W. Norton, 1955.
- Securing orchestration skills is not an easy task. One never get to hear the exercises they complete. A good strategy is to acquire, along with the mandatory scores and recordings, as many orchestration textbooks as possible. This textbook makes a good first choice. It is an outstanding orchestration text from a prominent composer. It includes excellent, in depth but easy to perceive, descriptions of each instrument and each family of instruments. Percussion, in all music, has been enhanced since the writing of this book. The acquisition of Contemporary Percussion by Reginald Smith Brindle would make a good companion volume.

Reed, Owen, and Joel Leach. Scoring for Percussion, and the Instruments of the Percussion Section. Englewoods Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc, 1969. Revised with added CD by Deanna Hudgins. Van Nuys, California: Alfred Publishing, 2010.

- A highly useful textbook. The book is divided into two main sections – Percussion Instruments and Notation and Scoring. The Percussion Instruments section, in the 2010 edition, divides the instruments the following categories: Mallets, Membrane, Metallic, Wooden, World Percussion, Bells and Whistles, and Other Sound Effect Instruments. The description of each instrument is good. What is very good is that each instrument has a point form paragraph of beaters used and their effect, and a similar paragraph listing distinctive features. I love the inclusion of the Brake Drum – “since the automobile industry is the sole manufacturer of brake drums, the percussionists generally salvage them from a junkyard, or buy them from an automobile parts dealer.” The Notation and Scoring section is quite informative and uses the traditional five line stave for all instruments, as opposed to the single line system in Reginald Smith Brindle’s Contemporary Percussion, which makes a good companion volume.
- The revised 2010 edition is much enhanced. The layout is larger and clearer. Instrumental ranges reflect modern instruments and many instruments have been added. Now we have mixing bowls (quite lovely) – “measured in quarts”, car spring, and bulb horn – “intended to warn pedestrians and other motorists of one’s presence and intentions.” Also added in this edition are seven quite handy appendices that include abbreviations, symbols, and a quick reference for ranges and beaters. The CD-ROM is well recorded and includes beautiful colour photos. However, you have to use it in your computer because of the lack of track numbers on the CD-ROM Contents reference page. Also the instruments are in alphabetical order on the CD-ROM and grouped by family on the reference page. If one is using the CD-ROM on a CD player and not on a computer, one is left to guess what is what on the CD. Fun for some, maddening for most.
- Overall this is an excellent, reasonable priced, textbook suitable for musicians of all abilities.

Stone, Kurt. Music Notation in the 20th Century: A Practical Guidebook. New York: W.W. Norton, 1980.
- In 1974 Kurt Stone participated in the Ghent International Conference on New Musical Notation (a conference attended by over eighty active participants including composers, musicians, musicologists, and publishers from seventeen countries). This notable notation textbook was written shortly afterward.

Swartz, Boris. Greta Masters of the Violin: from Corelli and Vivaldi to Stern, Zuckerman, and Perlman. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1987.
- A history book of violin virtuosos. However, one can glean much about violin technique and writing for the violin by reading it. Excellent and comprehensive. Has an introduction by Yehudi Menuhin.

10. Electronic and Computer Music

Chadabe, Joel. Electric Sound: The Past and Promise of Electronic Music. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1997.
- A comprehensive overview of the history of electronic music.

Dobson, Richard. A Dictionary of Electronic and Computer Music Technology: Instruments, Terms, Techniques. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
- This text functions both as a reference work and as a teaching text, moving from basic principles to specific examples.

Dodge, Charles, and Thomas Jerse. Computer Music. 2nd ed. New York: Schirmer, 1997.
- Offers clear, practical overviews of program languages, real-time synthesizers, digital filtering, and artificial intelligence.

Manning, Peter. Electronic and Computer Music. Revised ed. London: Oxford University Press, 2004.
- The publication date of any book in this rapidly changing field is important. Now in its third edition, this text covers electroacoustic music from its inception to its digital systems of today.

Wick, Robert L. Electronic and Computer Music. New York: Greenwood, 1997.
- A reference text. More than 250 books representing a core bibliography are discussed.

11. Conducting

Boult, Adrian. A Handbook On The Technique Of Conducting. Revised ed. London: Paterson's Publishers, 1968.
- The charming little book, by one of the finest conductors who has ever lived, was written in 1920 for private circulation amongst members of the Conducting Class of the Royal College of Music. It was revised for its public release. It is worth obtaining just for the preface where Sir Adrian expresses "considerable contempt for conductors who spend a great deal of time elaborating (and) explaining points to people who have thought them all out probably many years before." The eminent maestro takes only 30 pages to tell it all. Now why is that?

Green, A. H. Elizabeth. The Modern Conductor. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1997.
- Elizabeth Green completed the sixth edition of this highly respected book just before she died in 1995. Several of her friends followed the manuscript to print. Highly detailed (perhaps too much) with many diagrams and score excerpts. Used by many universities. It is of interest to view the two DVDs, The Art of Conducting - Great Conductors of the Past and Legendary Conductors of a Golden Era, and compare the techniques used in those films by the master maestros to those discussed in this book.

Ross, Allan A. Techniques for Beginning Conductors. Belmont, California, Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1976.
- Learning to conduct is one of the oddest experiences in music. One stands up in front of a legion of highly accomplished musicians, who are probably thoroughly familiar with the music to be rehearsed, and attempts to lead them; essentially playing one's instrument for the first time. This fine book, gradual in its approach, will, just a little bit, cushion that first daunting experience. It divides each chapter into three sections: Conducting Techniques, Scores Reading, and Terminology. It contains many scores excerpts and all the information one needs without being overly technical.

12. Score Anthologies

Bach, Johann Sebastian. Sulyok Imre, ed. Four-Part Chorales. Budapest, Hungary; Editio Musica Budapest, 1982.
- The finest edition of Bach's Chorales available. The text for each chorale is included along with historical data, such as, who wrote the melody and in which work the chorale is used. Decants are also included. Organized, Soli Deo Gloria, in alphabetical order. Also listed in Musicianship, Sight reading, and Ear Training, and Harmony.

Bonds, Mark Evans. Anthology of Scores, 2 vols. 2nd ed. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2005. (Accompanies Mark Bonds, A History of Music in Western Culture. 2nd ed.)
- A thoughtful selection of works with interesting comments. Accompanying CDs are available. Goes very well with the history textbook.

Burkhart, Charles. Anthology for Musical Analysis. 6th ed. Shirmer Books, 2003
- Used by many universities. The musical examples are well chosen and the comments stimulating. Please note, it does note come with accompanying CDs. Also listed in Analysis.

Forney, Kristine, ed. The Norton Scores: A Study Anthology. 2 vols. 8th ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 1999. (Accompanies J. Machlis, The Enjoyment of Music.)
- Used by many universities in music appreciation courses. Accompanying CDs are available. Goes very well with the history textbook.

Melcher, Music for Study, and Music for Advanced Study, A Source of Excerpts.
- A well chosen collection of excerpts and complete compositions from major works of 17th - 20th Century composers. In one or two volumes depending on which edition you have. Also listed in Keyboard Harmony.

Palisca, Claude V., ed. The Norton Anthology of Western Music. 5th ed., 2 vols. New York: W.W. Norton, 2005. (Accompanies Grout and Palisca A History of Western Music.)
- Highly regarded, used by many universities. Accompanying CDs are available. Works well with the history textbook.

Scott, Samuel, and Gustave Frederic Soderlund. Examples of Gregorian Chant & Other Sacred Music of the Sixteenth Century. Long Grove, Illinois: Waveland Press, 1971.
- Musical examples beginning with chant and progressing from two-voice compositions to the five and six-voice works of Palestrina. An excellent selection of scores. Also listed under Counterpoint.

13. Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

Chwialkowski, Jerzy. The Da Capo Catalogue of Classical Music Compositions. New York: Da
Capo Press, 1996.
- A staggering resource, a dream reference book. It has every composition by every major composer, 132 of them, from Monteverdi (b. 1567) to Lutoslawski (d. 1994). Not only does it list the compositions by their various numbers and nicknames, it lists the arias from operas and oratorios, plus unfinished and lost works.

Feather, Leonard, and Ira Gitler, eds. The Biographical Encyclopedia of Jazz. London: Oxford University Press, 2007.
- An update of Feather's book first published in the 1950's. A standard reference text.

Kallmann, Helmut, Gilles Potvin, and Kenneth Winters, eds. Encyclopedia of Music in Canada. 2nd ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1992.
- A little out of date, but a terrific book. It covers everything musical that has ever happened in Canada.

Kennedy, Michael, and Joyce Bourne, eds. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. 5th ed. London: Oxford University Press, 2007.
- A shorter version of the book below.

Kennedy, Michael, and Joyce Bourne, eds. The Oxford Dictionary of Music. Revised ed. London: Oxford University Press, 2006.
- One of the standard music dictionaries, an excellent book. "A labour of love ... lively information about people, particularly the living ... up-to-date and, frankly, indispensable" - The Times

Kernfeld, Barry, ed. The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz. 2nd ed. 3 vols. London: MacMillan, 2001.
- Very fine, as all the Grove books are.

Committee of the General Synod. The Book of Common Praise: The Hymn Book of the Anglican Church of Canada. London: Oxford University Press, 1908, revised 1938.
- Every musician should have at least one hymn book. It can function as a sight reading text and as a harmony source. It should not be too modern, too out of date, or come from a church with a dubious musical history. The 1938 revision of the Book of Common Praise, highly recommended, offers a fine selection of hymns from Orlando Gibbons to Healey Willan, all very well laid out with much source information. Also listed in Musicianship, Sight reading, and Ear Training, and Harmony.

Latham, Alison ed. The Oxford Companion to Music. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
- One of the standard reference texts; one volume, 1,434 pages. Received, by some, with reservation when compared to the 1983, two volume, 2,017 pages, Denis Arnold edition. I like the Percy Scholes edition that was first published in 1938 and updated in 1958 and 1970. It is a lovely, charming book. It is fun to read and opinionated, which is part of its appeal. In Haydn's bio we are treated to this jewel, "At 28 he married unwisely and began the proverbial, leisurely repentance."

Randel, Don Michael, ed. The Harvard Biographical Dictionary of Music. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1996.
- This book fills in the gap left by the omission of composers in the Harvard Dictionary of Music below. The Library Journal placed it a weak third behind Nicolas Slonimsky's Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians and Michael Kennedy's Oxford Dictionary of Music.

Randel, Don Michael, ed. The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1999.
- A shorter version of the book below. It contains nearly all of the most important entries found in the larger edition plus composers' biographies.

Randel, Don Michael, ed. The Harvard Dictionary of Music. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003.
- A standard musical dictionary, excellent in every way. Please note, it does not contain composers biographies. "Easily the most useful of all musical dictionaries because of its accuracy, concision, and ease of reference." - Charles Rosen. By the way, the predecessor, edited by Willi Apel, is also excellent in every way.

Sadie, Stanley, ed. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 2nd ed. 29 vols. London: Macmillan, 2001. The gold standard of musical reference books. The best single source of musical information in English, 25,000 pages, 29,000 articles, in 29 volumes. Originally priced at $4,850 USD, now a steal at $1,500.

Sadie, Stanley, ed. The New Grove Dictionary of Opera. 4 vols. London: Macmillan, 1992.
- Sadie, the editor of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (see above), concentrates on opera with suburb results. "A monument of enlightened scholarship." - Sunday Telegraph.

Slonimsky, Nicholas. Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians. 8th ed. New York: Schirmer Reference, 1992.
- This is the fattest book that I own. And I only have the fifth edition with the 1971 supplement. The eight edition, 3.5 million words and 2115 pages, all penned by Slonimsky, weighs in at a staggering 8 pounds (3.63 kilograms). You could support your car on it while doing a brake job. The author was probably the foremost musicologist of the 20th Century. He served as an assistant to the Boston Symphony Orchestra conductor Serge Koussevitzky, taught music theory at Boston Conservatory, conducted the world premieres of Charles Ives' Three Places in New England in 1931 and Edgard Varáse's Ionisation for thirteen percussionists in 1933, wrote several books including The Lexicon of Musical Invective and Thesaurus of Scales and Melodic Patterns, made appearences on the Johnny Carson Show, and late in life became good friends with Frank Zappa perfoming some of his own compositions at a Zappa concert in Santa Monica, California. He was full of good humour with a staggering knowledge of music, especially contemporary music. All this comes blazingly through in the editions Slonimsky edited (5th through 8th) of Baker's book, which was originally published in 1900. The most complete and reliable source of biographical information on musical subjects. An indispensable tool for serious music collectors.

Slonimsky, Nicholas. Laura Kuhn, ed. Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Twentieth Century Classical Musicians. New York: Schirmer, 1997.
- Slonimsky died in 1995 at the age of 101 making the 8th edition of Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians his last. This book is a spin off of that prestigious tome. Coverage here is sharply limited to contemporary classical musicians, making possible the addition of 500 new entries. Also, existing entries have been revised, updated, and expanded (some significantly), and most works lists are now complete. In all, more than half of the text is completely new, much of it written by Slonimsky before his death; the entire work was edited by long-time Slonimsky collaborator Kuhn.

Warrack, John, and Ewan West, eds. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Opera. 3rd ed. London: Oxford University Press, 1996.
- Derived from the book below; this is a handy, portable guide to opera.

Warrack, John, and Ewan West, eds. The Oxford Dictionary of Opera. London: Oxford University Press, 1992.
- "Fabulous... manages to include more than 900 singers and 750 composers, with the crisp detail that Oxford reference editors make their signature. Bravo! and Brava!" - Philadelphia Inquirer.

14. Online Resources

Alexander Street Press
http://alexanderstreet.com/

Canadian Music Centre
http://www.musiccentre.ca/

Encyclopedia of Music in Canada.
http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/emc/index-e.html

Every Note
Sheet music download from the world's largest digital music library
http://everynote.com/

Gramophone
The magazine's webpage. An authority on classical music since 1923.
http://www.gramophone.co.uk/

Harvard College Library
http://hcl.harvard.edu/research/guides/music/resources/index.html

Levy Sheet Music Collection
Contains over 29,000 pieces of music and focuses on popular American music spanning the period 1780 to 1960.
https://jscholarship.library.jhu.edu/handle/1774.2/2085

Library and Archives Canada, Music and Performing Arts
http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/

Library of Congress
http://www.loc.gov/index.html

Naxos Music Library
http://www.naxosmusiclibrary.com/home.asp

Oxford Music Online (includes Grove Music Online, Encyclopedia of Popular Music, The Oxford Companion to Music, The Oxford Dictionary of Music, and The New Grove publications)
http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/public/

The Red Hot Jazz Archive
If you are interested in jazz before 1930, this site is it. Contains musicians and band biographies and many recordings.
http://www.redhotjazz.com/

Petrucci Music Library
Free public domain sheet music library. 25,698 works, 64,607 scores, 248 recordings, 3,479 composers, 21 performers
http://imslp.org/wiki/Main_Page

Smithsonian Institution
http://www.si.edu/

Wikipedia
Lots of folks pooh pooh Wiki because anyone can edit it. I have found, for the most part, especially in classical music articles, that the information is accurate and informative.
http://en.wikipedia.org/